p171

This question should be answered using the Weekly data set, which is part of the ISLR package. This data is similar in nature to the Smarket data from this chapterâ€™s lab, except that it contains 1,089 weekly returns for 21 years, from the beginning of 1990 to the end of 2010.

Produce some numerical and graphical summaries of the Weekly data. Do there appear to be any patterns?

Use the full data set to perform a logistic regression with Direction as the response and the five lag variables plus Volume as predictors. Use the summary function to print the results. Do any of the predictors appear to be statistically significant? If so, which ones?

Compute the confusion matrix and overall fraction of correct predictions. Explain what the confusion matrix is telling you about the types of mistakes made by logistic regression.

Now fit the logistic regression model using a training data period from 1990 to 2008, with Lag2 as the only predictor. Compute the confusion matrix and the overall fraction of correct predictions for the held out data (that is, the data from 2009 and 2010).

Repeat (d) using LDA

Repeat (d) using QDA

Repeat (d) using KNN with K = 1.

Which of these methods appears to provide the best results on this data?

Experiment with different combinations of predictors, includ- ing possible transformations and interactions, for each of the methods. Report the variables, method, and associated confu- sion matrix that appears to provide the best results on the held out data. Note that you should also experiment with values for K in the KNN classifier.

```
library(ISLR)
library(tidyverse)
```

`summary(Weekly)`

```
## Year Lag1 Lag2 Lag3
## Min. :1990 Min. :-18.1950 Min. :-18.1950 Min. :-18.1950
## 1st Qu.:1995 1st Qu.: -1.1540 1st Qu.: -1.1540 1st Qu.: -1.1580
## Median :2000 Median : 0.2410 Median : 0.2410 Median : 0.2410
## Mean :2000 Mean : 0.1506 Mean : 0.1511 Mean : 0.1472
## 3rd Qu.:2005 3rd Qu.: 1.4050 3rd Qu.: 1.4090 3rd Qu.: 1.4090
## Max. :2010 Max. : 12.0260 Max. : 12.0260 Max. : 12.0260
## Lag4 Lag5 Volume Today
## Min. :-18.1950 Min. :-18.1950 Min. :0.08747 Min. :-18.1950
## 1st Qu.: -1.1580 1st Qu.: -1.1660 1st Qu.:0.33202 1st Qu.: -1.1540
## Median : 0.2380 Median : 0.2340 Median :1.00268 Median : 0.2410
## Mean : 0.1458 Mean : 0.1399 Mean :1.57462 Mean : 0.1499
## 3rd Qu.: 1.4090 3rd Qu.: 1.4050 3rd Qu.:2.05373 3rd Qu.: 1.4050
## Max. : 12.0260 Max. : 12.0260 Max. :9.32821 Max. : 12.0260
## Direction
## Down:484
## Up :605
##
##
##
##
```

`pairs(Weekly)`